During his earlier years living in Paris, Hemingway spent a great deal of time in Pamplona watching bullfights, and learning about the contests. He became an aficionado of the sport, and followed the matches closely. After leaving Paris, Hemingway returned in the early thirties to do research for his manifesto on the subject, Death in the Afternoon. Hemingway visited Spain often and attended bullfights throughout his life. His last trip to the country in 1959 to watch the contests between two famous matadors lead to the Life magazine story The Dangerous Summer.